|Product name||Malignant melanoma|
|No. of samples||59|
|No. of patients||59|
|Core diameter||2.0 mm|
|Section thickness||4 micrometer|
Product Related Literature
Malignant melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. The melanocytes, dark pigment, melanin, which is responsible for the color of skin. These cells occurs primarily not only the skin, including (see uveal melanoma) and colon eye, in other parts of the body. Melanoma, can be generated from any part of the body that melanin is included. Melanoma is rare compared to other forms of skin cancer. If it is previously established, it is very dangerous. This causes the majority of deaths related to skin cancer (75%). Worldwide, doctors diagnose about new cases of melanoma each year 160 000. In women, the most common site is the melanoma and legs in men have returned to most often. This is particularly common among Northern Europeans living in good climate Caucasian, especially sunny. Sicily and paradoxical decrease in the south and Italy, and has a high incidence Oceania, North America, Europe, South Africa, in Latin America. This geographical pattern, mating and pigmentation of the skin in the amount of population. According reflect the WHO report (UV) exposure ultraviolet light, about 48 000 people associated with melanoma death, the main reason is, all over the world every year will occur
Treatment includes surgical removal of the tumor. Compact, it is thin still if it is completely removed, the possibility of healing between melanoma lung, if found previously. Possibility of spread melanoma or return is dependent on the deep it is in or enters the layer of the skin. Melanoma, radiation therapy and immunotherapy and chemotherapy is included in distribution treatment or come back.
Valuable many mutations that are run in families, increasing susceptibility to melanoma remarkably often known. Other genes some are identified as increased risk of developing melanoma. Rare some genes cause melanoma, a relatively high risk, several genes in common, a gene called MC1R for example caused the red hair, have a relatively low risk is high. Genetic testing may be used to determine whether any of the mutations In currently known. One class of mutations affects the gene CDKN2A. Alternative reading frame mutation in this gene results in 50% of human cancers and transcription factors involved destabilization of p53, in apoptosis.
CDK4, another mutation of the same gene result in non-functional inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase that promotes cell division. Causing mutations predispose one to melanoma skin seriously xeroderma pigmentosum also (XP). The scattered throughout the genome, these mutations reduce the ability of cells to repair DNA. (Which means that the possibility of a person having a mutation to express a phenotype much higher) highly mutations and CDKN2A XP is expressed. The familial melanoma, is a genetically heterogeneous, locus for familial melanoma can be found in the 12Q chromosome arm 1P, and 9P. Genetic multiple events associated with the (development of disease) pathogenesis of melanoma.
(CDKN2A/MTS1) gene encodes a tumor suppressor p16INK4a one multiple – protein inhibitor of low molecular weight cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK s) – which is localized in the region of p21 of human chromosome 9 . It provides less risk of other mutations, but it is more popular in the population. For example, 2 to 4 times a person with a mutation in the gene MC1R Foliage, two genes (usually intact form), likely to develop melanoma as compared to the wild-type copy is high. MC1R mutations are very common, but in fact, all people with red hair have a mutated copy of the gene. Mutations in the MDM2 SNP309 gene is associated with an increased risk of melanoma in young women.
The early stages of melanoma, is initiated when the melanocytes begin to grow out of control. Melanocytes are located between the skin and the (skin) the outer layers of the next layer and (dermis). The early stages of the disease, is less than 1mm is called the period of growth in the radial direction of the tumor. Due to the fact that cancer cells, that does not reach the blood vessels under the skin, these early cancer spreads to other parts of the body is very low. If it is detected at this stage, melanoma, can be removed completely by surgery normally. When the tumor cells start moving in the direction of a different behavior of cellular changes dramatically – in the papillary dermis and epidermis vertically.
But the next step in the evolution is a confusing invasive radial growth phase, the words, I will explain about the next step in the process of growth of radial individual cells start to acquire invasive potential it. This step is important – can be diffused into the melanoma from the moment this. Breslow depth of the lesion is usually less than 2 1mm (0.04 inches), the Clark level in general. Vertical growth phase (VGP) – The next step in the process, it is melanoma invasive. Tumor reaches the invasive ability, which means that it can be converted into tissue surrounding it, and spread around the body through the blood and lymphatic vessels. Typically 1 mm thickness of the tumor is in (0.04 inches) or more, tumor contains a deep part of the dermis.
The host, induces an immune response against (VGP times) tumors defined by the active presence and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (the TIL). These cells are destroying the primary tumor completely at times, this is called a regression in the later stages of melanoma development. In some cases, the primary tumor is completely destroyed, only metastatic tumor is detected. About 40% of human melanoma comprising activating mutations combined signal affect the structure of proteins obtained by the B-Raf rough MAP kinase pathway.