|Product name||Colorectal cancer-metastasis-normal|
|No. of samples||59|
|No. of patients||40|
|Core diameter||2.0 mm|
|Section thickness||4 micrometer|
|Description||cancer :40 cores
metastatic cancer :10 cores
normal :9 cores
Product Related Literature
In addition, in colon cancer known as cancer or colon cancer of the colon, cancer, are in addition to uncontrolled growth of cells in the colon or rectum or is (colon). The genetic analysis of colorectal tumor essentially, the same genetically, indicating that it is a cancer. Typically, symptoms of colorectal cancer, would include rectal bleeding that is associated with changes in bowel habits and weight loss, sometimes anemia.
As a fraction of the cases hereditary disease underlying are involved, colon most cancers can be attributed to age and lifestyle. Usually begins in the intestinal mucosa, and if not treated, the lower, which in turn can be converted into the muscular layer through the intestinal wall. Screening and is effective in reducing the risk of death from colon cancer, it is recommended starting at age 50, people will continue until 75 years old. Usually, colon cancer, which is localized be diagnosed by colonoscopy or S-shaped colonoscopy.
Cancer in the wall of the intestine, while the cancer has spread widely in the body, curing is not cured typically often surgically, control, attention to the durability of the human using chemotherapy then , I have improved the quality of life. Colorectal cancer is a cancer that is most frequently diagnosed in the three largest in the world, but the developed countries is common it. About 60% of cases are diagnosed in developed countries. It is estimated that that all over the world in 2008, new cases of 1.23 million of colon cancer will be diagnosed clinically, it killed 608 million people.
As a consequence of mutations in that Wnt signaling pathway to increase the signaling activity artificially most commonly, colon cancer is a disease derived from epithelial cells in the mucous membrane of the colon or rectum of the gastrointestinal tract. Mutations can be acquired or inherited, to generate stem cells in intestinal crypts most likely. Mutant gene is the APC to produce APC protein most often in colon cancer gene of all. Β-catenin, without APC, and accumulated to a high level “brake” on the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus moved to (drive), APC protein is important in general to update the system and binds DNA Sometimes, expressing cell differentiation, can lead to cancer at a higher level improperly When you activate the transcription of a gene is. Blocking mutations of other genes, or decomposition thereof having a function of similarity between that is mutated in the majority of certain types of cancer, colon cancer, cancer, APC is, mutations due to (CTNNB1) β-catenin NKD1 or, AXIN2, TCF7L2, ADR as AXIN1 that β-catenin is increasing.
Beyond the defects in Wnt signaling-APC-β-catenin signaling pathway, must be performed to convert the cancer cells other mutations. The monitor cell division usually, if there is defect in Wnt pathway thereof, P53 protein production differences, kill cells by TP53 gene. Finally, the cell line, we get the organization turns TP53 mutations and gene from adenoma to invasive cancer. (Sometimes, mutations, does not have a protective another protein named BAX is p53 gene coding), apoptotic protein disabling other, removed in (colorectal cancer and DCC TGF-β in colon cancer in general are). TGF-β has a mutation that inactivated at least half of the colon cancer. Sometimes, when TGF-β is not excluded, in many cases, a protein called Smad DCC followed is to remove chromosomal segments in colorectal cancer.
Several genes is a cancer gene – They are over-expressed in colon cancer. For example, a protein gene encodes, usually, PI3K KRAS, and RAF may acquire a mutation that results in the activation of cell proliferation and stimulates cells to divide in response to growth factors. General primary KRAS mutations lead to borderline lesion or self-limiting hyperplasia, chronological order of mutations is important sometimes, if it occurs APC mutation after the previous, in many cases, to progress to cancer. PTEN, tumor suppression, can usually inhibits the PI3K, disabling and sometimes mutations.
I made it clear that colon cancer is ultra-mutation, comprehensive analysis, genome-wide can be separated clearly in tumor types not super mutation. In addition to the above inactivating mutation for the gene that contains a super-mutation and ARID1A, SOX9, ATM CTNNB1, FAM123B mutations also sample and oncogenes. Genetic event that displays a mutant of BRAF and, TGFBR2, MSH3, MSH6, SLC9A9, TCF7L2 ACVR2A, progression through a separate set of super-mutant tumor. The common theme in both types of tumors among these genes, it is the participation of the major factor TGF-β signaling pathway and WNT lead to increased activity of MYC in order, of colon cancer.
Usually, to go the S-shaped colonoscopy colonoscopy during, or diagnosis of colon cancer is through a biopsy of tumor that depends on the site of the lesion. Then, the degree of disease is determined by a CT scan of the chest pelvis, abdomen and typically. It can be used in certain cases, for example, a test image other potential such as MRI and PET. Suspension colon is one which has been made below, when based on the TNM system is determined by how much the primary tumor has spread, lymph nodes are included, how much and whether and metastasized.